Chargers for all electric cars support single-phase charging. They can be plugged into standard sockets, but the problem is that standard sockets do not provide enough power, no more than 16 amps. As a result, most electric cars can’t draw more than 10 amps when plugged into standard outlets. This, in turn, means that charging times are very long. The bigger the battery pack in an electric car, the more power it needs. And the faster you charge the battery, the more capacity it has. That’s why most electric cars can draw no more than 16 amps when plugged into standard outlets. But as a result, their charging times are much longer than cars with smaller batteries. Three-phase outlets are designed for higher currents. The reason so few electric cars have three-phase charging is because it’s more expensive than single-phase.
At the moment there is no unification on the socket itself in the electric car, so there are quite a few different charging ports, adapters and adapters.
Type 1 (J1772)
2009, the American SAE introduces the Type 1, or J1772, five-pin plug. This is a single-phase plug for AC 220-230V networks with a maximum charging capacity of up to 7.4 kW.
Type 2 (Mennekes)
2013, the European Commission for the Development of Sustainable Transport adopts a new connector standard for electric vehicles – Type 2, or Mennekes (named after the company that developed it). It is considered the most common in Europe. In the single-phase version, the maximum power output is the same as in the Type 1 – 7.4 kW. But in the three-phase version (380 V) home stations can deliver up to 22 kW, and specialized chargers up to43,5 kW.
CCS Combo (Combined Charging System)
The CCS connector is a kind of Type 1 and Type 2 with two additional power contacts and the ability not only to charge the battery with alternating current (200-500V), but also with a DC charging function up to 170 kW. Unfortunately, in Russia the power will still be limited to 50 kW. In addition, CCS Combo connectors are different in Europe, USA and Japan. In the Old World, they offer the Mennekes-compatible Combo 2 connector, and in the U.S. and Japan – Combo 1, which is based on Type 1(J1772).
CHAdeMO – from the French “charge de move” – is a two-pin DC charging connector with voltage up to 500V, current up to 125A and power up to 200kW (the 2.0 standard with power up to 400kW also appeared). Widely used all over the world.
This standard is often called in simplified form GBT. It is used only in electric cars made in China. It looks similar to the European Mennekes, but in fact it is completely incompatible with it. Moreover, there are two types of GBT connectors – for charging with alternating current and direct current.